The Carriage of dangerous goods and marine pollutants in sea-going ships is respectively regulated in the International Convention for the Safety of the Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of pollution from Ships (MARPOL).
Relevant parts of both SOLAS and MARPOL have been worked out in great detail and are included in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code, thus making this Code the legal instrument for maritime transport of dangerous goods and marine pollutants. As of 1st January 2004, the IMDG Code will become a mandatory requirement.
Classification of dangerous goods
For all modes of transport (sea, air, rail, road and inland waterways) the classification (grouping) of dangerous goods, by type of risk involved, has been drawn up by the UNITED NATIONS Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UN).
Class 6: Toxic and infectious substances
Subclass 6.1: Toxic, poison substances
운송 중 건강에 해를 끼치기 위해 인간에게 유독하다고 알려진 동물이나 실험 동물에서 시험했을 때 독성 범주에 속하기 때문에 사람에게 독성이있는 것으로 추정됩니다.
An irritating material such as tear gas that causes extreme irritation, especially in confined spaces
Subclass 6.2: Biohazard
이 규정의 목적 상 :
22.214.171.124 Infectious substances are substances which are known or are reasonably expected to contain pathogens. Pathogens are defined as micro-organisms (including bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, parasites, fungi) and other agents such as prions, which can cause disease in
인간 또는 동물.
Note: Toxins from plant, animal or bacterial sources which do not contain any infectious substances or toxins that are not contained in substances which are infectious substances should be considered for classification in Division 6.1 and assigned to UN3172.
126.96.36.199 Biological products are those products derived from living organisms which are manufactured and distributed in accordance with the requirements of appropriate national authorities, which may have special licensing requirements, and are used either for prevention, treatment, or diagnosis of disease in humans or animals, or for development, experimental or investigational purposes related thereto. They include, but are not limited to, finished or unfinished products such as vaccines.
188.8.131.52 Cultures are the result of a process by which pathogens are intentionally. This definition does not include patient specimens as defined in 184.108.40.206.
220.127.116.11 Patient specimens are those collected directly from humans or animals, including, but not limited to, excreta, secreta, blood and its components, tissue and tissue fluid swabs, and body parts being transported for purposes such as research, diagnosis, investigational activities, disease treatment and prevention.
18.104.22.168 Medical or clinical wastes are wastes derived from the medical treatment of animals or humans or from bio-research.
6.2.2 Classification of Infectious Substances
22.214.171.124 Infectious substances must be classified in Division 6.2 and assigned to UN2814, UN2900, UN 3291 or UN3373, as appropriate.
126.96.36.199 Infectious substances are divided into the following categories.
188.8.131.52.1 Category A:
감염된 물질은 노출되었을 때 영구적 인 장애, 건강한 사람이나 동물에서 생명을 위협하는 치명적인 질병을 일으킬 수있는 형태로 운반되는 전염성 물질. 이 기준을 만족하는 물질의 표기 예는 표 3.6.D에 나와있다.
주 : 노출은 감염성 물질이 보호 포장재 외부로 방출되어 사람이나 동물과 신체적 접촉을 유발할 때 발생합니다.
(a) 인간과 동물 모두에서 질병을 일으키는 이러한 기준을 충족시키는 전염성 물질은 UN 2814에 할당되어야한다. 동물에서만 질병을 일으키는 감염 물질은 UN 2900에 할당되어야한다.
(b) 유엔 2814 또는 유엔 2900에 대한 양도는 인간 또는 동물의 출생의 알려진 병력 및 증상, 지방 특유의 지역 조건 또는 출처가 인간 또는 동물 인 개별 상황에 관한 전문적인 판단에 근거해야합니다.
1. UN 2814의 적절한 선적 명칭은 인체에 영향을 미치는 전염성 물질입니다. 유엔 2900의 적절한 선적 명칭은 전염성 물질로 동물에만 영향을 미친다.
2. 다음 표는 완전한 것이 아닙니다. 표에 나타나지 않지만 동일한 기준을 충족시키는 새로운 병원체 또는 출현하는 병원균을 포함하는 전염성 물질은 범주 A에 지정되어야한다. 또한 물질이 기준을 충족시키는 지에 대한 의심이있는 경우 카테고리 A에 포함됨.
3. 다음 목록에서 이탤릭체로 표시된 미생물은 박테리아, 마이코 플라스마, 리케차 또는 곰팡이입니다.
Bacillus anthracis (cultures only) Infectious substance Brucella abortus (cultures only) Brucella melitensis (cultures only) Brucella suis (cultures only) Burkholderia mallei – Pseudomonas mallei – Glanders (cultures only) Burkholderia pseudomallei – Pseudomonas pseudomallei (cultures only) Chlamydia psittaci – avian strains (cultures only) Clostridium botulinum (cultures only) Coccidioides immitis (cultures only) Coxiella burnetii (cultures only) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Dengue virus (cultures only) Eastern equine encephalitis virus (cultures only) Escherichia coli, verotoxigenic (cultures only) Ebola virus Flexal virus Francisella tularensis (cultures only) Guanarito virus Hantaan virus Hantavirus causing hemorragic fever with renal syndrome Hendra virus Hepatitis B virus (cultures only) Herpes B virus (cultures only) Human immunodeficiency virus (cultures only) Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (cultures only) Japanese Encephalitis virus (cultures only) Junin virus Kyasanur Forest disease virus Lassa virus Machupo virus Marburg virus Monkeypox virus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (cultures only) Nipah virus Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus Poliovirus (cultures only) Rabies virus Rickettsia prowazekii (cultures only) Rickettsia rickettsii (cultures only) Rift Valley fever virus Russian spring-summer encephalitis virus (cultures only) Sabia virus Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (cultures only) Tick-borne encephalitis virus (cultures only) Variola virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus West Nile virus (cultures only) Yellow fever virus (cultures only) Yersinia pestis (cultures only) African swine fever virus (cultures only) Avian paramyxovirus Type 1 – Velogenic Newcastle disease virus (cultures only) Classical swine fever virus (cultures only) Foot and mouth disease virus (cultures only) Goatpox virus (cultures only) Lumpy skin disease virus (cultures only) Mycoplasma mycoides – Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia(cultures only) Peste des petits ruminants virus (cultures only) Rinderpest virus (cultures only) Sheep-pox virus (cultures only) Swine vesicular disease virus (cultures only) Vesicular stomatitis virus (cultures only)
184.108.40.206.2 Category B:
범주 A에 포함시키기위한 기준을 충족시키지 않는 전염성 물질. 범주 B의 전염성 물질은 UN 3373에 지정되어야합니다.
Note: The proper shipping name of UN 3373 is Diagnostic specimens or Clinical specimens or Biological substance, category B. On 1 January 2007, it is anticipated that the use of the shipping names Diagnostic specimens and Clinical specimens will no longer be permitted.
220.127.116.11.1 Substances which do not contain infectious substances or substances which are unlikely to cause disease in humans or animals are not subject to these Regulations unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class.
18.104.22.168.2 Substances containing microorganisms which are non-pathogenic to humans or animals are not subject to these Regulations unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class.
22.214.171.124.3 Substances in a form that any present pathogens have been neutralized or inactivated such that they no longer pose a health risk are not subject to these Regulations unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class.
126.96.36.199.4 Environmental samples (including food and water samples) which are not considered to pose a significant risk of infection are not subject to these Regulations unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class.
188.8.131.52.5 Dried blood spots, collected by applying a drop of blood onto absorbent material, or faecal occult blood screening tests and blood or blood components which have been collected for the purposes of transfusion or for the preparation of blood products to be used for transfusion or transplantation and any tissues or organs intended for use in transplantation are not subject to these Regulations.
184.108.40.206.6 Patient specimens for which there is minimal likelihood that pathogens are present are not subject to these Regulations if the specimen is packed in a packaging which will prevent any leakage and which is marked with the words "Exempt human specimen" or "Exempt animal specimen", as appropriate. The packaging must meet the following conditions:
(a) 포장은 세 가지 구성 요소로 구성되어야합니다.
1. A leak-proof primary receptacle(s);
2. A leak-proof secondary packaging; and
3. An outer packaging of adequate strength for its capacity, mass and intended use, and with at least one surface having minimum dimensions of 100 mm × 100 mm;
(b) 액체의 경우, 전체 내용물을 흡수하기에 충분한 양의 흡수성 재료가 있어야한다.
주 용기와 2 차 포장 사이에 위치하여 운송 중에 액상 물질이 방출되거나 누출이 외부 포장에 닿지 않으며 완충재의 완전성을 손상시키지 않아야한다.
(c) 여러 개의 깨지기 쉬운 1 차 콘센트가 하나의 2 차 포장에 놓이는 경우, 서로 접촉하지 않도록 개별 포장하거나 분리해야합니다.
NOTE: In determining whether a patient specimen has a minimum likelihood that pathogens are present, an element of professional judgment is required to determine if a substance is exempt under this paragraph. That judgment should be based on the known medical history, symptoms and individual circumstances of the source, human or animal, and endemic local conditions.
이 단락에 따라 운송 될 수있는 표본의 예로는 콜레스테롤 수치, 혈당치, 호르몬 수치 또는 전립선 특이 항원 (PSA)을 모니터링하기위한 혈액 또는 소변 검사; 비 감염성 질환을 가진 사람이나 동물, 또는 치료 약물 모니터링을위한 심장, 간 또는 신장 기능과 같은 기관 기능을 모니터하는 데 필요한 것; 보험 또는 고용 목적을 위해 행해지 며 마약 또는 술의 존재를 결정하기위한 것. 임신 검사; 암을 발견하는 생검; 사람이나 동물에서의 항체 검출.
6.2.3 Biological Products
220.127.116.11 For the purposes of these Regulations, biological products are divided into the following groups:
(a) 적절한 국가 당국의 요구에 따라 제조되고 포장되어 최종 포장 또는 유통 목적으로 운송되고 의료 전문가 또는 개인이 개인 건강 관리에 사용하는 것. 이 그룹의 물질에는이 규정이 적용되지 않습니다.
(b) 단락 (a)에 속하지 않고 전염성 물질을 함유하고 있다고 알려져 있거나 합리적으로 믿어지고 범주 A 또는 범주 B에 포함시키기위한 기준을 충족하는 것들.이 그룹의 물질은 UN2814, UN2900 또는 UN3373에 할당되어야한다. , 적절한.
참고 : 일부 허가 된 생물학적 제제는 전 세계의 특정 지역에서만 생물학적 유해 물질을 나타낼 수 있습니다. 이 경우 관할 당국은 이러한 생물학적 제제가 전염성 물질에 대한 현지 요건을 준수하도록 요구하거나 다른 제한 사항을 부과 할 수있다.
6.2.4 Genetically Modified Micro-organisms and Organisms
18.104.22.168 Genetically modified micro-organisms not meeting the definition of an infectious substance must be classified according to Subsection 3.9.
6.2.5 Medical or Clinical Wastes
22.214.171.124 Medical or clinical wastes containing Category A infectious substances must be assigned to UN2814 or UN2900, as appropriate. Medical or clinical wastes containing infectious substances in Category B, must be assigned to UN3291.
126.96.36.199 Medical or clinical wastes which are reasonably believed to have a low probability of containing infectious substances must be assigned to UN3291. Note: The proper shipping name for UN3291 is Clinical waste, unspecified, n.o.s. or (Bio) Medical waste, n.o.s. or Regulated medical waste, n.o.s..
6.2.6 Infected Animals
188.8.131.52 A live animal that has been intentionally infected and is known or suspected to contain an infectious substance must not be transported by air unless the infectious substance contained cannot be consigned by any other means. Infected animals may only be transported under terms and conditions approved by the appropriate national authority.
184.108.40.206 Unless an infectious substance cannot be consigned by any other means, live animals must not be used to consign such a substance.
220.127.116.11 Animal carcasses affected by pathogens of category A or which would be assigned to category A in cultures only, must be assigned to UN 2814 or UN 2900 as appropriate. Other animal carcasses affected by pathogens included in Category B must be transported in accordance with provisions determined by the competent authority.
6.2.7 Patient Specimens Patient specimens must be assigned to UN 2814, UN 2900 or UN 3373 as appropriate except if they comply with 18.104.22.168