The Carriage of dangerous goods and marine pollutants in sea-going ships is respectively regulated in the International Convention for the Safety of the Life at Sea (SOLAS) and the International Convention for the Prevention of pollution from Ships (MARPOL).
Relevant parts of both SOLAS and MARPOL have been worked out in great detail and are included in the International Maritime Dangerous Goods (IMDG) Code, thus making this Code the legal instrument for maritime transport of dangerous goods and marine pollutants. As of 1st January 2004, the IMDG Code will become a mandatory requirement.
Classification of dangerous goods
For all modes of transport (sea, air, rail, road and inland waterways) the classification (grouping) of dangerous goods, by type of risk involved, has been drawn up by the UNITED NATIONS Committee of Experts on the Transport of Dangerous Goods (UN).
Class 6: Toxic and infectious substances
Subclass 6.1: Toxic, poison substances
An irritating material such as tear gas that causes extreme irritation, especially in confined spaces
Subclass 6.2: Biohazard
22.214.171.124 Infectious substances are substances which are known or are reasonably expected to contain pathogens. Pathogens are defined as micro-organisms (including bacteria, viruses, rickettsiae, parasites, fungi) and other agents such as prions, which can cause disease in
Note: Toxins from plant, animal or bacterial sources which do not contain any infectious substances or toxins that are not contained in substances which are infectious substances should be considered for classification in Division 6.1 and assigned to UN3172.
126.96.36.199 Biological products are those products derived from living organisms which are manufactured and distributed in accordance with the requirements of appropriate national authorities, which may have special licensing requirements, and are used either for prevention, treatment, or diagnosis of disease in humans or animals, or for development, experimental or investigational purposes related thereto. They include, but are not limited to, finished or unfinished products such as vaccines.
188.8.131.52 Cultures are the result of a process by which pathogens are intentionally. This definition does not include patient specimens as defined in 184.108.40.206.
220.127.116.11 Patient specimens are those collected directly from humans or animals, including, but not limited to, excreta, secreta, blood and its components, tissue and tissue fluid swabs, and body parts being transported for purposes such as research, diagnosis, investigational activities, disease treatment and prevention.
18.104.22.168 Medical or clinical wastes are wastes derived from the medical treatment of animals or humans or from bio-research.
6.2.2 Classification of Infectious Substances
22.214.171.124 Infectious substances must be classified in Division 6.2 and assigned to UN2814, UN2900, UN 3291 or UN3373, as appropriate.
126.96.36.199 Infectious substances are divided into the following categories.
188.8.131.52.1 Category A:
(a) 传染性物质符合这些标准，在人类或者两者在人类和动物中引起疾病必须分配给 un2814。只有在动物中引起疾病的传染性物质必须分配给 UN 2900。
(b) 为 un2814 或 un2900 的分配必须基于已知的病史和症状的人类或动物的来源、 地方性的当地条件或具体情况的源的人 oranimal 的专业判断。
1.正确运输名称为 un2814 是传染性物质，影响人类。UN 2900 正式运输名称是传染性物质，影响动物只。
2.下表不是详尽无遗的。传染性物质，包括新的或新出现的病原体，而不显示在表中，但符合同样的标准必须分配给类别 A.此外，，如果有一种物质符合标准的疑问那么它必须包括归入 A 类。
3.在下面的列表中楷体书写的微生物是细菌、 支原体、 立克次体或真菌。
Bacillus anthracis (cultures only) Infectious substance Brucella abortus (cultures only) Brucella melitensis (cultures only) Brucella suis (cultures only) Burkholderia mallei – Pseudomonas mallei – Glanders (cultures only) Burkholderia pseudomallei – Pseudomonas pseudomallei (cultures only) Chlamydia psittaci – avian strains (cultures only) Clostridium botulinum (cultures only) Coccidioides immitis (cultures only) Coxiella burnetii (cultures only) Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus Dengue virus (cultures only) Eastern equine encephalitis virus (cultures only) Escherichia coli, verotoxigenic (cultures only) Ebola virus Flexal virus Francisella tularensis (cultures only) Guanarito virus Hantaan virus Hantavirus causing hemorragic fever with renal syndrome Hendra virus Hepatitis B virus (cultures only) Herpes B virus (cultures only) Human immunodeficiency virus (cultures only) Highly pathogenic avian influenza virus (cultures only) Japanese Encephalitis virus (cultures only) Junin virus Kyasanur Forest disease virus Lassa virus Machupo virus Marburg virus Monkeypox virus Mycobacterium tuberculosis (cultures only) Nipah virus Omsk hemorrhagic fever virus Poliovirus (cultures only) Rabies virus Rickettsia prowazekii (cultures only) Rickettsia rickettsii (cultures only) Rift Valley fever virus Russian spring-summer encephalitis virus (cultures only) Sabia virus Shigella dysenteriae type 1 (cultures only) Tick-borne encephalitis virus (cultures only) Variola virus Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus West Nile virus (cultures only) Yellow fever virus (cultures only) Yersinia pestis (cultures only) African swine fever virus (cultures only) Avian paramyxovirus Type 1 – Velogenic Newcastle disease virus (cultures only) Classical swine fever virus (cultures only) Foot and mouth disease virus (cultures only) Goatpox virus (cultures only) Lumpy skin disease virus (cultures only) Mycoplasma mycoides – Contagious bovine pleuropneumonia(cultures only) Peste des petits ruminants virus (cultures only) Rinderpest virus (cultures only) Sheep-pox virus (cultures only) Swine vesicular disease virus (cultures only) Vesicular stomatitis virus (cultures only)
184.108.40.206.2 Category B:
一种传染性的物质不符合 b 类的类别，也就是 A.传染性物质列入标准必须分配给联合国 3373。
Note: The proper shipping name of UN 3373 is Diagnostic specimens or Clinical specimens or Biological substance, category B. On 1 January 2007, it is anticipated that the use of the shipping names Diagnostic specimens and Clinical specimens will no longer be permitted.
220.127.116.11.1 Substances which do not contain infectious substances or substances which are unlikely to cause disease in humans or animals are not subject to these Regulations unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class.
18.104.22.168.2 Substances containing microorganisms which are non-pathogenic to humans or animals are not subject to these Regulations unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class.
22.214.171.124.3 Substances in a form that any present pathogens have been neutralized or inactivated such that they no longer pose a health risk are not subject to these Regulations unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class.
126.96.36.199.4 Environmental samples (including food and water samples) which are not considered to pose a significant risk of infection are not subject to these Regulations unless they meet the criteria for inclusion in another class.
188.8.131.52.5 Dried blood spots, collected by applying a drop of blood onto absorbent material, or faecal occult blood screening tests and blood or blood components which have been collected for the purposes of transfusion or for the preparation of blood products to be used for transfusion or transplantation and any tissues or organs intended for use in transplantation are not subject to these Regulations.
184.108.40.206.6 Patient specimens for which there is minimal likelihood that pathogens are present are not subject to these Regulations if the specimen is packed in a packaging which will prevent any leakage and which is marked with the words "Exempt human specimen" or "Exempt animal specimen", as appropriate. The packaging must meet the following conditions:
1. A leak-proof primary receptacle(s);
2. A leak-proof secondary packaging; and
3. An outer packaging of adequate strength for its capacity, mass and intended use, and with at least one surface having minimum dimensions of 100 mm × 100 mm;
放置在主贮器和辅助的包装，以便在运输期间任何液体物质的泄漏或释放不会达到最外层包装并不会妥协的缓冲材料 ； 完整性之间
NOTE: In determining whether a patient specimen has a minimum likelihood that pathogens are present, an element of professional judgment is required to determine if a substance is exempt under this paragraph. That judgment should be based on the known medical history, symptoms and individual circumstances of the source, human or animal, and endemic local conditions.
可能在这一段下运输的标本的例子包括接受血液或尿液测试的监视器胆固醇水平、 血糖水平、 激素水平或前列腺特异性抗原 （PSA） ；那些为人类或动物与非传染性疾病，或治疗药物监测 ； 监测器官如心、 肝或肾功能的功能所需那些进行保险或就业的目的，旨在确定存在药物或酒精 ；妊娠试验 ；组织的切片来检测癌症 ；和在人类或动物的抗体检测。
6.2.3 Biological Products
220.127.116.11 For the purposes of these Regulations, biological products are divided into the following groups:
(b) 那些不属于 (a) 段和已知或合理地相信含有传染性物质和符合列入 A 类的标准或在此组中的类别 B.物质必须酌情分配给 UN2814、 UN2900 或 UN3373。
6.2.4 Genetically Modified Micro-organisms and Organisms
18.104.22.168 Genetically modified micro-organisms not meeting the definition of an infectious substance must be classified according to Subsection 3.9.
6.2.5 Medical or Clinical Wastes
22.214.171.124 Medical or clinical wastes containing Category A infectious substances must be assigned to UN2814 or UN2900, as appropriate. Medical or clinical wastes containing infectious substances in Category B, must be assigned to UN3291.
126.96.36.199 Medical or clinical wastes which are reasonably believed to have a low probability of containing infectious substances must be assigned to UN3291. Note: The proper shipping name for UN3291 is Clinical waste, unspecified, n.o.s. or (Bio) Medical waste, n.o.s. or Regulated medical waste, n.o.s..
6.2.6 Infected Animals
188.8.131.52 A live animal that has been intentionally infected and is known or suspected to contain an infectious substance must not be transported by air unless the infectious substance contained cannot be consigned by any other means. Infected animals may only be transported under terms and conditions approved by the appropriate national authority.
184.108.40.206 Unless an infectious substance cannot be consigned by any other means, live animals must not be used to consign such a substance.
220.127.116.11 Animal carcasses affected by pathogens of category A or which would be assigned to category A in cultures only, must be assigned to UN 2814 or UN 2900 as appropriate. Other animal carcasses affected by pathogens included in Category B must be transported in accordance with provisions determined by the competent authority.
6.2.7 Patient Specimens Patient specimens must be assigned to UN 2814, UN 2900 or UN 3373 as appropriate except if they comply with 18.104.22.168